Dr. Fingerprint - Fingerprint : The Key to Life
香港權威皮紋檢測中心

香港俱有公信力之媒體均選擇訪問 Dr. Fingerprint 創辦人 Mark Lee (明報、信報、南傳媒、香港電台第一台等)最俱影響力之網站 (baby-kingdom、生活易、荷花親子等) 紛邀請Mark為其網站作專家顧問

足証 Dr. Fingerprint 乃 
香港權威、獲獎之皮紋分析中心


NOW TV 皮紋分析專訪
 
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Have a Nice Day Part 1
由權威皮紋學及營養學家Mark Lee為皮紋分析作簡介,並為歐陽妙芝一家及林珊珊作皮紋分析。
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Have a Nice Day 皮紋專訪
皮紋分析專訪
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 












孩子需要您的了解!
Dr. Fingerprint 一直致力推廣《孩子成長由了解開始》,過去十年來為逾10,000個家庭提供解決成長問題方案,並開發孩子應有潛能,從不同角度欣賞及體會孩子優點及缺點,達致改善親子關係的效果!
跟據調查發現,能了解孩子先天特質後,再配合適當後天環境及訓練,孩子的情緒、集中力及親子關係均有明顯進步!

皮紋學發展

「皮紋學」是對手掌、腳掌及指紋形態研究的學說,這些紋理在人類中是獨一無二,反映個人遺傳訊息並與神經系統有密切關連。簡而言之,皮紋學能揭示我們的遺傳特質及天賦。而皮紋學說經歷多年分析及驗證,從遺傳學、醫學、人類學及統計學中得出結論。

從17世紀開始,意大利解剖學及微觀學家Marcello Malpighi對指紋產生注意,花40年時間來研究;1823年,科學家發現指紋與先天智能有關聯,美國醫生從無腦畸形 (Anencephalous child) 中得知先天無腦的畸胎除大腦外,指紋也沒有形成的。直到19世紀,首先由捷克生物學家 Joannes Evangelista Purkinje 展開一連串有關皮膚脊紋的科研,當時開始對指紋作分類,其後由達爾文表親Sir Francis Galton 撰寫 ”Fingerprint” 一書,奠下指紋分類的基礎,從Purkinje的分類中建立更有系統的分類,更為皮紋學創立學術用字,亦為人類學家、動物學家及遺傳學家創出新研究方向。當期時發現皮膚脊紋的獨特性正正為發展中的生物學提供很有用的資訊。到二十世紀初,美國學者 Harris Hawthorne Wilder 把過去對皮膚脊紋有關之研究 (包括指紋) 作系統分析,從1902到1916一系列的文獻有極大貢獻。

到1926年,由美國 Tulane University 微觀解剖學家Dr. Harold Cummins於美國解剖學家年會正式訂立「皮紋學」至今九十年,被稱為「皮紋學之父」,他的研究函蓋遺傳學到人類學,以胚胎學中皮膚脊紋在懷孕13週開始發展至24週完成後不會改變。於1943年與 Midlo 及 Wilders 合著 Fingerprints, Palms and Soles 被稱為皮紋學經典著作。

與皮紋學之父 Harold Cummins同期,Julius Spier與著名心理學家榮格多次發表研究文章,亦以皮紋學方法撰寫有關兒童性格心理發展的書籍 --- The Hands of Children: An Introduction To Psycho-Chirology。當中榮格提出 :

" ...totality-conception of modern biology which is based on the evidence of a host of observations and research does not exclude the possibility that hands, whose shape and functioning are so intimately connected with psyche, might provide revealing and, therefore, interpretable expressions of psychical peculiarity, that is, of the human character...The findings and knowledge expounded in Mr. Julius Spier's book are of essential importance for psychologists, doctors and educationalists."

而大腦的結搆於書中第三十八頁提到 :

"...Thumb and index reveal the conscious attitude to the world which is connected with the will, whereas the third and fourth fingers disclose the intellectual-spiritual aspirations of a person....thumb and index, which are allotted the task of penetrating the surrounding world, are less revealing as regards talents than the ring finger and the little finger which are intimately connected with and related to the personality and influenced from within..."

1929年,K. Bonnevie 發現指紋形態與神經系统形態有密切關連。到1973年,W. Hirsch 及 J. U. Schweichel 指出血管與神經線在胚胎發展時以配對方式分裂,並在皮膚表面表達出來。而 Hirsch 及 Schweichel 強調神經系統與表皮發展應該是皮紋形態中最重要的研究。在比對研究時,神經管導發展成中樞神經系統並於胚胎發展中慢慢形成大腦,因此他們相信皮紋能反映行為模式。從胚胎研究,中發現皮膚細胞與整個脊椎神經系統均來自外皮層。當期時從大量紀錄中發現染色體異常 (Chromosomal anomalies) 會導到皮膚脊紋變形。

很多先天問題均會留下相應的痕跡於大腦及手上,例如手掌出現猿線 (simian line) 及悉尼摺痕 (Sydney creases) 跟染色體異常的智力障礙有關。亦有研究指悉尼摺痕與白血病有關。這使當時假設皮膚脊紋型態與遺傳訊息表達得到極大支持。直至1990's遺傳基因研究功能同源性 (Functional Homology) 時,遺傳性型 (Genotype) 到遺傳表型 (Phenotype) 有突破發展,科學研究確立了這些遺傳模式不單止是限制於物種與物種之間,更能達至細胞與細胞之間,解釋了精確細胞分裂背後系統及神經系統與手掌上皮膚之關連。

1976年,日本學者 Yoshida O 及 Komatz Y 對遺傳問題 Klinefelter's Syndrome 作出指紋與脊紋數量的比較,發現正箕紋出現率與低脊紋總量有直接關係。

皮紋學研究者相信,脊紋形態在胚胎發展時由基因強烈地控制著,屬於發展路徑的軌跡,能反映多個器官徵狀 (multi-organ syndromes),例如 Hox gene 與神經細胞分裂有關,負責脊椎及後腦建立,亦在中及前腦發展中有重要角式,同時亦與皮膚細胞有控制作用。到1994年,A. C. Bogle, T. Reed and R. J. Rose合作研究脊紋形態與精神狀況及情格特質之關連 ,他們以皮紋學與 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) test 作比對,特別針對雙胞胎作研究,臨床數據發現左右手皮紋出現不對稱與焦慮或憂鬱行為極有關係。

著名現代皮紋學研究學者 Campbell 對指紋形態有深入研究,他特別提到斗紋 (Whorl) 屬自我中心型,當在姆指時,比較容易有固執及不易協調別人的情況,亦代表大腦能控制良好人際關係。但斗紋在食指的話,則會有強烈的目標為本的傾向。若在無名指,便會表現出良好專注力,不易被影響。Campbell更發現中指指紋發展出現間弧紋時,平衡能力會較弱,實驗時閉上眼後便無法估算立體空間。

近年皮紋學研究:
1) Relationship between genetic anomalies of different levels and deviations in dermatoglyphic traits.

sha-04-04.pdf (PDF — 529 KB)




2)  Pathology of Dermatoglyphics in Infantile Autism

Autism.pdf (PDF — 186 KB)




3) A Study on Relationship between Dermatoglyphics and Hypertension

hypertension.pdf (PDF — 233 KB)




4) Dermatoglyphics as markers of prenatal disturbances in schizophrenia: a case-control study

sag-40-6-12-0903-14.pdf (PDF — 109 KB)




5) Chromosomes, Dermatoglyphics and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Poly COS.pdf (PDF — 2 MB)



6) The somatotype and dermatoglyphic profiles of adult, junior and juvenile male Brazilian top-level volleyball players.





7) Genetic rules for the dermatoglyphics of human fingertips and their role in spouse selection: a preliminary study




以下可給閣下簡單體驗 :



我們的優勢:
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  • Dr. Fingerprint親子王國 邀請為專家顧問。
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馬上電郵預約登記
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2012-16年大熱家長講座:
『親子關係壓力的紓緩』
 
Dr. Fingerprint於逾200所學為家長們提升對孩子的了解,透過皮紋分析讓您更能掌握親子關係成功之道。
 
 
快來報名或推廌您孩子就讀的學校舉辦親子講座啦。
 
 
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『健康成長好有機』電台節目
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Dr. Mark Lee每星期都會邀請友好兒科醫生為家長講解孩子疾病處理小貼士,而Mark則從營養及皮紋學角度教家長健康成長方程式!
 
 
"從營養到皮紋分析,保証您獲益!"
 
 
『親子天下』網上電台節目
 
Dr. Fingerprint創辦人Dr. Mark Lee獲邀主持網上電台親子節目『親子天下』,專講親子教育題目,每週邀請專家一同分享親子教育經驗:
 
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創動力媒體《親子天下》特別篇訪問施永青先生
 
電視專訪
J2 兄弟幫節目,詳細解釋皮紋分析科學背景及應用,並為主持人即場分析!
 
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兄弟幫皮紋分析專訪
Steven 與MC Jin一同接受皮紋分析,認真地了解科學背景及理論。
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兄弟幫皮紋分析專訪Part 2
MC Jin與Steven有著十分不同的先天特質!www.DrFingerprint.org
 










Dr. Fingerprint親子專欄
 
Dr. Fingerprint權威皮紋分析系統獲多本雜誌邀請為專欄主筆,Mark會在專欄中多作案例分享,並發表對親子熱話睇法
 
 
專欄1:子教‧「指」教
 
 
 
於3週刊內附的〝童快報〞內刊載
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
專欄2:多多「指」教
 
 
 
 
 
於〝兒童尖子〞親子雜誌內刊載
 
 
 
 
 

 




________________________________________________________________________
皮紋分析程序
第一步採集指紋 (約5-10分鐘)
第二步專人製作皮紋報告表 (約7-14天)
第三步分析 (約30-45分鐘)
**費用:HK$2,980.00 (每位)
________________________________________________________________________
皮紋學簡介
胚胎成長,細胞分列時,身體皮紋細胞與大腦神經元同樣來自Ectoderm。透過近一世紀的觀察與研究,腦神經元的分佈量及模式有規律地反映在手指紋之中。


References
*Joannes Evangelista Purkinge, "Physiological Examination of the Visual Organ and of the Cutaneous System" (Commentatio de Examine Physiologico Organi Visus et Systematis CutaneiBreslau: Vratisaviae Typis Universitatis, 1823. (Translated into English by Cummins, H, and R.W. Kennedy, Am.J.Crim.Law.Criminol. vol 31, pp. 343-356, 1940) 
*Grew's presentation to the Royal Society in 1684 cited by Harold Cummins and Charles Midlo, Finger Prints, Palms and Soles An Introduction To Dermatoglyphics, ©1943 The Blakiston Company, Philadelphia, p. 11 
*G. Bidloo, Anatomy Humani Corporis, Amsterdam, 1685 
*M. Malpighius, De externo tactus organoLondon, 1686. 
*Cummins and Midlo, Finger Prints, Palms and Soles An Introduction To Dermatoglyphics, supra., pp. 11-15. 
*The works of Hintze 1747 and Albinus 1764 were briefly mentioned. J. C. A. Mayer's work Anatomische Kupfertafeln nebst dazu gehörigen Erklörungen, 1783-1788, last section on fingerprints, 1788 is cited for the observation that the skin ridge patterns are never duplicated in two persons though they have certain likenesses. J. F. Schröeter is cited for his illustrations of the organization of ridges and pours and the morphology of the skin of the palm in his work of 1814 published in Leipzig: Das menschliche Gefühl oder Organ des Gestastes. Bell is cited for his contribution, The Hand, to the Bridgewater Treatise on The Power, Wisdome, and Goodness of God, as Manifest in the Creation 1833 wherein he observed clearly two functional advantages of epidermal ridges, increased friction aiding firmer grasp and the aid to the sense of touch. 
*H. Faulds, On the Skin furrows of the hand Nature 22:605 (October 28, 1880) and W. J. Herschel Skin furrows of the hand Nature 23:76 (November 25, 1880). 
*Sir Francis Galton, Fingerprints. London: MacMillan & Co. 
*Norris M. Durham and Chris C. Plato, editors, Trends in Dermatoglyphic Research, © 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht/Boston/London, p. 4. 
*Harold Cummins and Charles Midlo, Finger Prints, Palms and Soles An Introduction To Dermatoglyphics, ©1943 The Blakiston Company, Philadelphia, p. 19. 
*Harris Hawthorne Wilder, Palms and soles. A,. J. Anat 1902, 1:423-441; Racial differences in palm and sole configuration, Am. Anthropologist 1904 6:244-293; Duplicate Twins and double monsters (part only), Am J. Anat. 1904, 3:426-472; Palm and sole studies, 1916, Biol Bull 30:135-172, 211-252. 
*Inez L. Whipple-Wilder, The Ventral Surface of the Mammalian Chiridium J. Morph Anthropol 1904, 49:153-221. 
*Kristine Bonnevie, Studies on palillary patterns of human fingers, J Genet 1924 15:1-111. 
*Norris M. Durham and Chris C. Plato, editors, Trends in Dermatoglyphic Research, © 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht/Boston/London, p. 6. 
*Harold Cummins and Charles Midlo, Palmar and Plantar Epidermal Configurations (Dermatoglyphics) in Eurpoean Americans, Am J Phys Anthropol, 1926 9:471-502. 
*Harold Cummins, H. H. Keith, Charles Midlo, R. G. Montgomery, Harris Hawthorne *Wilder, Inez Whipple-Wilder, Revised methods of interpreting and formulating palmar dermatoglyphics, Am J. Phys Anthropol 1929, 12:415-473. 
*Harold Cummins and Charles Midlo, Finger Prints, Palms and Soles An Introduction To Dermatoglyphics, ©1943 The Blakiston Company, Philadelphia. 
Ibid, p. 9-10. Ibid, p. 280-281. Quotes from T. Kubo Beiträge zur Daktyloskopie der Koreaner, Mitt. Med. Fachschule Keijopp. 117-223, 1918; pp. 1-63, 1919; pp. 1-150, 1921. 
*L. S. Penrose, Fingerprints and Palmistry, The Lancet, June 2, 1973, p. 1241. Penrose displays an arrogant ignorance in his 1973 remarks that "in the whole range of the cheiromantic cult, no use of the fine dermal ridges by which the science of dermatoglyphics is concerned..." is mentioned "except sometimes cursorily in the literature." He ignores the works of his contemporaries Jaquin, Compton, Scheimann and Hutchinson who all wrote for those interested in the cheiromantic cult. Yet Beyrl B. Hutchinson was familiar with Penrose's work while he was at the Galton Laboratory, Your Life in Your Hands Neville Spearman, Ltd., London, 1967, p. 96. 
*Dermatoglyphics, An International Perspective, Jamshed Mavalwala, Editor, 1978, Moulton Publishers, The Hague - Paris, Aldine, Chicago, USA distributors, p. 19. 
Harold Cummins and Charles Midlo, Finger Prints, Palms and Soles An Introduction To Dermatoglyphics, ©1943 The Blakiston Company, Philadelphia, p. 9. 
*Samudrik Tilak M. Katakkar, Encyclopedia of Palm and Palm Reading, ©1992 UBS Publishers' Distributors, Ltd., New Delhi, pp. 114 - 116. 
*Saint-Germain, Comte C. de, (Valcourt-Vermont, Edgar de), The Practice of Palmistry for Professional Purposes, Chicago, 1897 Newcastle Publishing, London, reprint 1973. 
*Benham, William G., The Laws of Scientific Hand Reading, ©1900, Knickerbocker Press, New York Health Research, Mokelumne Hill, CA reprint of the January, 1912 printing. p 194-195. 
*United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, The Science of Fingerprints, Classifications and Uses,(Rev. 12-84) U.S.G.P.O., pp. 11-18 especially, see also for example: Frederick Kuhne, The Fingerprint Instructor, 1917, Munn & Company, Inc, New York, especially page 34; and Harry Battley, Single Finger Prints, 1930 New Scotland Yard (H. M. Stationary Office), especially 33-37. 
39 Larchwood House, Baywood Square, Chigwell Essex, 1G7 4AY U.K., phone 0181 500 8315, Hon. Harry G. Gullefer, Secretary. 
*Noel Jaquin, The Hand of Man, Faber & Faber Ltd, London, 1934 pp. 44-46. 
*Noel Jaquin, The Signature of Time, 1940, Faber & Faber, Ltd., London, pp. 87-96. See also Noel Jaquin, The Hand Speaks, Your Health, Your Sex, Your Life, 1942, Lindoe & Fisher, London. My copy Sagar Publications, New Delhi, India, 1973, pp. 15, 19. Noel Jaquin, Practical Palmistry, Originally published as "The Human Hand" D. B. Taraporevala Sons & Co. Private Ltd, Bombay, India, 1958, 1964 pp. 157-162. 
Vera Compton, Palmistry for Everyman, Associated Booksellers, Westport, Conn., 1951, 1956, pp. 40-43. 
*Yusuke Miyamoto, Fingerprints, © 1963, translated by Saki Mochizuki and Michael Whitington, Japan Publications Trading Company, Tokyo, Japan and Rutland, Vt., U.S.A. 
*Hutchinson, B. Beryl, Your Life in Your Hands, Sphere Books, Ltd., London, 1967., p. 89. Ibid pp. 89-125. 
*Eugene Scheimann, M.D., The Doctors's Guide to Better Health Through Palmistry, Parker Publishing, 1969. pp. 59-76. 
*Beverly C. Jaegers, You and Your Hand ©1974 Aries Productions Creve Coeur, Mo. and Hand Analysis, Fingerprints and Skin Patterns-dermatoglyphics ©1974 Aries Productions St. Louis, Mo. Ms. Jaegers has assured me that she came to her interpretations based upon the many palms and fingerprints she examined and did not depend upon the work of others, including Ms. Hutchinson. 
Fred Gettings, The Book of The Hand, © 1965, reprint 1968, Paul Hamlyn, Ltd., pp. 115-119. 
*Elizabeth Brenner, The Hand Book, Celestial Arts, Berkeley, CA, 1980, pp. 79 - 88. 
*Dennis Fairchild, The Handbook of Humanistic Palmistry, Thumbs Up! Publications, Ferndale, Mich., 1980. pp. 55 - 65. 
*Carol Hellings White, Holding Hands, The Complete Guide to Palmistry, G. P. Putnam Sons U.S.A. and Academic Press, Toronto, Canada, 1980., pp. 57-60. 
David Brandon-Jones, Practical PalmistryCRCS Publications, Reno, NV, 1986, pp. 132-137. 
*Enid Hoffman, Hands, A Complete Guide to Palmistry, Para Research, Inc., Glouster, MA, 1985, pp. 221 - 237. 
*Darlene Hansen, Secrets of the Palm, 1984, ACS Publications, Inc., San Diego, Ca., 1985, pp. 22-27. 
*Hachiro Asano, Hands, The Complete Book of Palmistry, Japan Publications, Inc., Tokyo and New York, 1985, pp 120-123. 
*Andrew Fitzherbert, Hand Psychology, Angus & Robertson, London, 1986, pp. 246 - 254. 
*Sasha Fenton and Malcolm Wright, The Living Hand, Aquarian Press, Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, 1986, pp. 42-45 and Palmistry, How To Discover Success, Love and Happiness, 1996, Crescent Books, N.Y., p. 52. 
*Shifu Terence Dukes , Chinese Hand Analysis, Samuel Weiser, Inc., 1987. pp.107-118. Dukes, also know as Shifu Nagaboshi Tomio has a web site on his version of Chinese palmistry at Nathaniel Altman, and Eugene Scheimann, M.D. Medical Palmistry, A Doctor's Guide to Better Health Through Hand Analysis,©1989, Aquarian Press, Thorsons Publishing Group, Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, pp 57-74. 
*Nathan Altman has his own web page, Nathaniel Altman and Andrew Fitzherbert, Career, Success and Self Fulfillment, How Scientific Handreading Can Change Your Life, The Aquarian Press, Thorsons Publishing Group, 1988. 
*Paul Gabriel Tesla, The complete Science of Hand Reading, 1991, Osiris Press, Lakeland. Florida, and Crime & Mental Disease In The Hand, ©1991, Osiris Press, Lakeland. Florida. 
*Rita Robinson, Health In Your Hands, A New Look At Modern Palmistry and Your Health, ©1993, Newcastle Publishing, P.O. Box 7589, Van Nuys, CA 91409, pp. 85-97. 
*Richard Webster, Revealing Hands, How To Read Palms, ©1994, Llewellyn Publications, St. Paul, MN., pp. 210-216. 
*Moshé Zwang, Palm Therapy, Program Your Mind Through Your Palms, 1995, Ultimate Mind Publisher, Los Angeles, CA., pp. 377-382. Moshe has a web page, , for those interested in his work. 
*Xiao-Fan Zong and Gary Liscum, Chinese Medical Palmistry, Your Health in Your Hand, ©1995 Blue Poppy Press, 1775 Linden Ave., Boulder, CO 80304, pp 26-30. 
Ray Douglas, Palmistry and The Inner Self, 1995, Blandford, A Cassell Imprint, pp. 20-25. 
*Lori Reid, The Art of Hand Reading (1996) DK Publishing, NY., pp. 46-49. 
Edward D. Campbell, The Encyclopedia of Palmistry,©1996, A Perigee Book, Berkley Publishing Group, New York, N.Y., pp. 98-124. 
*Charlotte Wolff, The Human Hand, Alfred A. Knopf, 1943. 
*Arnold Holtzman, Applied Handreading, (1983) The Greenwood Chase Press, Toronto. Also see his web page <http://www.pdc.co.il
*Yale Haft-Pomrock, Hands, Aspects of Opposition and Complementarity in Archetypal Palmistry,© 1992 Daimon Verlag, Am Klosterplaz, Einsiedeln, Switzerland. 
*Carl Gustav Carus, ber Grund und Bedeutung der verschiedenen Formen der Hand, in Verschiedenen Personem, Stutgart, 1848, and Die Symbolik der menschlichen Gestalt. Ein Handbuch zur Menschen-KenntnisLeipzig, 1853. 
N. Vaschide, Essai sur la Psychologie de la mainParis: Rivière Marcel (Bibliothèque de Philosophie Expérimentale), 1909. 
*Ernst Kretschmer, Körperbau und Charakter, pp. 21-6 and 84. Berlin 1931. 
*Adolph Friedemann, Handbau und Psychosis, Arch. F. Neur. u. Psych. 1928. 
*Sorell, Walter, The Story of the Human Hand, The Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1967. 
*Wolff, Charlotte, The Human Hand, Alfred A. Knopf, 1943; and The Hand in Psychological Diagnosis, Methuen & Co., Ltd., 1951. 
King, Francis, Palmistry, Your Fate and Fortune in Your Hand, 1976, Cresent Books distributed by Crown Publishers, New York, N.Y. 10003, 1987. 
*Asano, Hachiro, Hands, The Complete Book of Palmistry, Japan Publications, Inc., Tokyo and New York, 1985. 
*Körperbau und Charakter, E. Kretschmer, Berlin, 1931. 
*Noel Jaquin, The Hand of Man,, Faber & Faber Ltd, London, 1934, pp. 44-48. 
*Noel Jaquin, The Signature of Time, 1940, Faber & Faber, Ltd., London. pp. 85-95; Jaquin, Noel, The Hand Speaks, Your Health, Your Sex, Your Life, 1942, Lindoe & Fisher, London. My copy Sagar Publications, New Delhi, India, 1973.. pp. 15, 19. 
Noel Jaquin, Practical Palmistry, Originally published as "The Human Hand", 1958. D. B. Taraporevala Sons & Co. Private Ltd, Bombay, India, 1964, pp. 159-161. 
*Vera Compton, Palmistry for Everyman, Associated Booksellers, Westport, Conn., 1951, 1956, pp. 40-43. 
*Fred Gettings, The Book of The Hand, © 1965, reprint 1968, Paul Hamlyn, Ltd., pp. 115-119. 
*Beryl B. Hutchinson, Your Life in Your Hands, Neville Spearman, Ltd., London, 1967, pp. 92-107. 
*Your Life in Your Hands, supra, pp. 106-125. 
*Eugene Scheimann, M.D., The Doctors's Guide to Better Health Through Palmistry, Parker Publishing, 1969., pp. 59-76. 
*Yusuke Miyamoto, Fingerprints, © 1963, translated by Saki Mochizuki and Michael Whitington, Japan Publications Trading Company, Tokyo, Japan and Rutland, Vt., U.S.A. 
*Lee Siow Mong, The Chinese Art of Studying the Head, Face and Hands, ©1989 *Tan Sri Lee Siow Mong, Pelanduk Publications (M) Sdn Bhd, 24, Jalan 20/16A, 46300 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia, p. 73. 
*Jaegers, supra., You and Your Hand, p. 30 Hand Analysis, Fingerprints and Skin Patterns-dermatoglyphics pp. 43-44. 
*Fairchild, supra., The Handbook of Humanistic Palmistry, pp. 49-52. 
*Jaegers, supra., You and Your Hand, pp. 5-15. 
*Cummins and Midlo, supra., Finger Prints, Palms and Soles An Introduction To Dermatoglyphics, pp. 84-119, 115. 
*Jaegers, supra., You and Your Hand, p. 8. 
*Elizabeth Brenner, The Hand Book, pp. 82-88. 
*Dennis Fairchild, The Handbook of Humanistic Palmistry, pp. 55-65. 
*Cummins and Midlo, Finger Prints, Palms and Soles, supra. p. 67. 
*Fairchild, Dennis, Palm Reading, A New Guide to a Mysterious Art, ©1996 Running Press ©Illustrations 1996 Melanie Powell, Courage Books imprint of Running Press Book Publishers, 125 S. 22nd St., Philadelphia, PA 19103-4399, see pp. 39-42. 
*Carol Hellings White, Holding Hands, The Complete Guide to Palmistry, supra., pp. 57-59. 
*David Brandon-Jones, Practical Palmistry, supra., pp. 132-137. 
*Enid Hoffman, Hands, A Complete Guide to Palmistry, supra., pp. 221-237. 
Ibid., at 234. 
*Darlene Hansen, Secrets of the Palm, supra., pp. 22-27. 
*Hachiro Asano, Hands, The Complete Book of Palmistry, supra., pp. 120-126. 
*Andrew Fitzherbert, Hand Psychology, supra., pp. 171-177. 
Ibid, pp. 180, 246-254. 
*Hutchinson, Your Life in Your Hands, supra, p. 113. 
*Sasha Fenton and Malcolm Wright, The Living Hand, supra., pp. 42-45; and Palmistry, How To Discover Success, Love and Happiness, 1996, Crescent Books, N.Y., p. 52. 
*Shifu Terence Dukes, Chinese Hand Analysis, supra., pp. 107-118. 
*Nathaniel Altman and Eugene Scheimann, M.D. Medical Palmistry, A Doctor's Guide to Better Health Through Hand Analysis, supra.. 
*Nathaniel Altman and Andrew Fitzherbert, Career, Success and Self Fulfillment, How Scientific Handreading Can Change Your Life, supra.. 
Career, Success and Self Fulfillment, supra., pp. 21-23. 
*Paul Gabriel Tesla, The Complete Science of Hand Reading, and Crime & Mental Disease In The Hand, supra.. 
*Samudrik Tilak M. Katakkar, Encyclopedia of Palm and Palm Reading, ©1992 UBS Publishers' Distributors, Ltd., New Delhi, pp. 107-117 and 151-152. 
Rita Robinson, Health In Your Hands, A New Look At Modern Palmistry and Your Health, supra., 85-97. 
*Moshé Zwang, Palm Therapy, Program Your Mind Through Your Palms, pp. 378-382. 
*Xiao-Fan Zong and Gary Liscum, Chinese Medical Palmistry, Your Health in Your Hand, supra., pp. 26-30. 
*Ray Douglas, Palmistry and The Inner Self, supra., pp. 20-25. 
Sasha Fenton and Malcolm Wright, Palmistry, How To Discover Success, Love and Happiness, supra., p. 52. 
*Lori Reid, The Art of Hand Reading, supra., pp. 46-49. 
This writer has four very well formed and centrally located, perhaps even five, peacock's eyes, including two on the little fingers, one on the right ring finger, one on the left middle finger and one in a reverse loop on the left thumb. He is right handed. All of the eyes form as pockets of ulnar loops and are part of the reason why he studies the palm. He has also walked away from several serious auto accidents and other traumas. 
*Edward D. Campbell. See also his own book, The Encyclopedia of Palmistry, supra., 98-124. 
*Eugene Scheimann, M.D., The Doctors's Guide to Better Health Through Palmistry, supr., p. 59. 
*The Hand As A Mirror Of Systemic Disease, Theodore J. Berry, M.D., F.A.C.P., F. A. Davis Company, Publishers, Philadelphia, 1963, for early development of dermatoglyphic patterns see also Dermatoglyphics in Medical Disorders, by B. Schaumann and M. Alter (1976) New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 187 - 189. Dermatoglyphics in Medical Disorders, Blanka Schaumann, Milton Alter, Springer-Verlag, 1976, pp. 1 - 7. 
*Schaumann and Alter, supra., pp. 209-211, 250-251. 
*Schaumann and Alter, supra., pp. 132-133. 
*William J. Babler, Prenatal Communalities in Epidermal Ridge Development, pp. 54-68 in Trends in Dermatoglyphic Researchedited by Norris M. Durham and Chris C. Plato, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/London/Boston © 1990. (Vol 1, Studies in Human Biology) 
*A. R. Hale, Morphogenesis of volar skin in the human fetus. 1951, Am. J. Anat 91:147-173. ibid, n. 64, pp. 64-68. 
*Schaumann and Alter, supra., pp. 2-3. 
*Schaumann and Alter, supra., p. 1. 
*Schaumann and Alter, supra., pp. 137-142. 
*William J. Babler, Prenatal Communalities in Epidermal Ridge Development, supra n. 64, p. 67 referring to S. M. Garn, W. J. Babler & A. R. Burdi, Prenatal origins of brachymesophalangia-5Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. (1976) 91: 147-173 
Ibid. p. 67. 
*K. Bonnevie, Zur Mechanik der Papillarmusterbuldung. I. Die Epidermis als fromativer faktor in der entwicklung der fingerbeeren und der Papillarmuster. Arch. Entwickl. Organ., (1929) 117:384. 
*W. Hirsch and J. U. Schweichel, Morphological evidence concerning the problem of skin ridge formation.J. Ment. Defic. Res., 17:58, 1973.Ibid. They confirm that the volar pads on the index and middle fingers are visible in the second month. They relate the symmetry or asymmetry of the pads and their development to whether whorls, loops or arches may be expected, with symmetrical = whorls, asymmetrical = loops and weak pad development = arches. They indicate that the pad shape is genetically set though environmentally modified. When crown rump length reaches about 90 mm (4 month) the first distinct, sharply delineated fold like proliferations appear in the epidermis and these are later perceived as glandular folds. These glandular folds bear a close spacial relationship with the distribution of capillary-neurite pairs. On the basis of the pattern of these glandular folds, they predicted that the forces of the growth pressure of these folds, the trajectory of the system of the epidermis and the glandular ducts would determine the highly arranged surface pattern of the papillary ridges. The final expression of genetic information in the form of surface patterns would be modified by environmental influences. Glandular folds , proliferations of cells from the epidermis that make their way into the mesenchyme (dermis) and form from the lateral distal borders of the distal phalanx to the medial proximal part of that phalanx and forming a Horshoe-shaped border on the fingertip. Folds continue to be formed at the periphery until the pad surface is entirely covered. This process occurs on the proximal phalanges beginning in the fifth month. During the fifth month the sweat glands set and the glandular ducts reach the surface in the sixth month. During the later course of development of the glandular folds, the volar pads become increasingly less prominent while the connective tissue becomes richer in collagen and denser. Secondary furrow fold formation is seen in the sixth and seventh month but it has either slight or no effect on the formation of the papillary ridge pattern. The papillary ridges on the surface skin molded by the glandular fold cell proliferation after the formation of glandular folds, sweat gland secretion and keratinisation has begun, after the sixth month. The authors speculate that three factors may possibly accomplish the transfer of the deep patterns to the skin surface: 1) proliferation pressure from the increased mitotic rate of the basal cell layer; 2) stabilization of the sweat gland secretion ducts at regular intervals on the surface; and, 3) by some counteracting force as a result of the first two forces, exerted by the tonofilament system, the system of fine filaments in the cytoplasm of each cell that function as supportive elements within the cytoskeleton and form the main precursors of keratin in the epithelium. They conclude that the pattern of the papillary ridges is set after the development of the glandular folds, after the forth month. 
Ibid. P. 69. 
*Richard E. Behrman, M.D., Robert M. Kleigman, M.D. and Ann . Arvin, M.D., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 15th Edition © 1996, p. 34, W. B. Saunders Company, division of Harcourt Braced & Company, Philadelphia/London/Toronto/ Montreal/ Sidney/Tokyo. 
*Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz and Thomas M. Jessel, Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior, © 1995, Appelton & Lange, Norwalk, Connecticut, pp. 94-95. 
*Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz and Thomas M. Jessel, Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior, supra., pp. 94-95. 
*Sumiko Kimura, Blanka A. Schaumann, Chris C. Plato and Tadashi Kitagawa, Developmental Aspects of Human Palmar, Plantar, and Digital Flexion Creases, in Trends in Dermatoglyphic Researchedited by Norris M. Durham and Chris C. Plato, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/London/Boston © 1990. (Vol 1, Studies in Human Biology), p. 84. 
*Schaumann and Alter, supra., p. 109. 
*Schaumann and Alter, supra., p. 109. 
*Yog R. Ahuja, Chris C. Plato, Effect of Environmental Pollutants on Dermatoglyphics in Trends in Dermatoglyphic Research, supra., pp. 125-128. 
Ibid pp. 129-132. 
*Sumiko Kimura, et. al., supra, pp. 84-98 
*A. R. Hale, Morphogenesis of volar skin in the human fetus. 1951, Am. J. Anat 91:147-157. Yog R. Ahuja and Chris C. Plato, supra. 
*Peter Thorogood, The Relationship Between Genotype and Phenotype: Some Basic Concepts, in Embryos, Genes and Birth Defects, supra., pp. 1-16. 
Anne Reeves Haake and Lowell A. Goldsmith, The Skin in Embryos, Genes and Birth Defects, supra., pp. 251-280 (275). 
*Andrew J. Copp, The Neural Tube, in Embryos, Genes and Birth Defects, supra., pp. 133-152 (145-146) 
*Peter Thorogood, The Head and Face, in Embryos, Genes and Birth Defects, ©1997, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, Weinheim, New York, Brisbane, Singapore, Toronto, pp. 197-229 (209-219) 
*Anne Reeves Haake and Lowell A. Goldsmith, The Skin in Embryos, Genes and Birth Defects, supra., pp. 251-280 (269-70). 
*Anne Reeves Haake and Lowell A. Goldsmith, The Skin in Embryos, Genes and Birth Defects, supra., pp. 251-280 (263). 
*Albert R. Damasio, Descartes' Error, Emotion Reason and the Human Brain, ©1994, Grosset/Putnam Book, New York, p. 255, 
*Amrita Bagga, Dermatoglyphics of Schizophrenics, 1989, Mittal Publications, New Delhi, India. 
*W. Hirsch, Dermatoglyphics and Creases in Their Relationship to Clinical syndromes: A Diagnostic Criterionpp. 263-282 in Jamshed Mavalwala, Editor, Dermatoglyphics, An International Perspective, 1978, Moulton Publishers, The Hague/Paris. 
*Dermatoglyphics in Medical Disorders, Blanka Schaumann, Milton Alter, supra., pp. 146-172. Danuta Z. Loesch, Quantitative Dermatoglyphics, Classification, Genetics, and Pathology, ©1983, pp. 220-289 Oxford Monographs on Medical Genetics, Hartnoll Print, Bodmin, Cornwall, UK. 
Loesch, ibis pp. 291-330. 
*Theodore Millon & Roger D. Davis, The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventroy-III (MCMI-III), in Major Psychological Assessment Instruments 2 Ed. Pp. 108-147, Charles S. Newmark Ed. Allyn & Bacon, © 1985-1996 
*A. C. Bogle, T. Reed, and R. J. Rose, Replication of Asymmetry of a-b Ridge Count and Behavioral Discordance in Monozygotic TwinsBehavior Genetics, 24 (1) Jan. 1994, pp. 65-72. ibid. p. 69.